1. Through their learning in the Counting and Cardinality and Operations and Algebraic Thinking domains, students:
• develop a more formal sense of numbers;
• use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 – 2 = 5.
Note: Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required; and
• choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.
2. Through their learning in the Geometry and Measurement and Data domains, students:
• describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and appropriate vocabulary;
• identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres;
• use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their everyday environment to create and compose more complex shapes; and • explore* coins and begin identifying of pennies and dimes.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.